The MAL interpreter always works in the context of a single user session, which provides for storage access to global variables and modules.
The linkage between MAL interpreter and compiled C-routines is kept as simple as possible. Basically we distinguish four kinds of calling conventions: CMDcall, FCNcall, FACcall, and PATcall. The FCNcall indicates calling a MAL procedure, which leads to a recursive call to the interpreter.
CMDcall initiates calling a linked function, passing pointers to the parameters and result variable, i.e. f(ptr a0,..., ptr aN) The function returns a MAL-SUCCEED upon success and a pointer to an exception string upon failure. Failure leads to raise-ing an exception in the interpreter loop, by either looking up the relevant exception message in the module administration or construction of a standard string.
The PATcall initiates a call which contains the MAL context, i.e. f(MalBlkPtr mb, MalStkPtr stk, InstrPtr pci) The mb provides access to the code definitions. It is primarilly used by routines intended to manipulate the code base itself, such as the optimizers. The Mal stack frame pointer provides access to the values maintained. The arguments passed are offsets into the stack frame rather than pointers to the actual value.
MAL runtime stack
The runtime context of a MAL procedure is allocated on the runtime stack of the corresponding interpreter. Access to the elements in the stack are through index offsets, determined during MAL procedure parsing.
The scope administration for MAL procedures is decoupled from their actual runtime behavior. This means we are more relaxed on space allocation, because the size is determined by the number of MAL procedure definitions instead of the runtime calling behavior. (See mal_interpreter for details on value stack management)
The variable names and types are kept in the stack to ease debugging. The underlying string value need not be garbage collected. Runtime storage for variables are allocated on the stack of the interpreter thread. The physical stack is often limited in size, which calls for safeguarding their value and garbage collection before returning. A malicious procedure or implementation will lead to memory leakage.
A system command (linked C-routine) may be interested in extending the stack. This is precluded, because it could interfere with the recursive calling sequence of procedures. To accommodate the (rare) case, the routine should issue an exception to be handled by the interpreter before retrying. All other errors are turned into an exception, followed by continuing at the exception handling block of the MAL procedure.